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ABSTRACTS
Proceedings of ILLRS Congress Miami 2015 Combined Meeting Of ILLRS, LLRS And ASAMI-BR

November 2015, 1(5):1-117
  8,198 24 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Combined techniques for the safe correction of very large tibial rotational deformities in adults
Kevin D Tetsworth, John David Thorsell
October-December 2015, 1(1):6-13
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.168743  
Background: There are few publications specifically discussing the correction of tibial rotational deformities in adults; there are none to our knowledge that address very large deformities, exceeding 45°. We describe here a combination of reliable and predictable techniques for the safe correction of very large tibial rotational deformities. Methods: Retrospective review of a case series of eight adult patients who underwent correction of very large tibial rotational deformities following this surgical treatment protocol, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. These techniques included a formal peroneal nerve release, a subcutaneous anterior fasciotomy, a percutaneous Gigli saw corticotomy, an intramedullary nail, temporary circular external fixation, and gradual correction. The average magnitude of the preoperative rotational deformity measured 54° (45-65°). Seven of the patients had very large external rotation deformities; one had a very large posttraumatic internal rotation deformity (65°). Results: These deformities, all exceeding 45°, were successfully corrected to clinically neutral in eight consecutive cases. For all eight cases, the deformity was fully corrected within 2 weeks, and the patients returned to theater for a planned second minor procedure (locking screw insertion and external fixator removal) at an average of 9.6 (6-14) days after the index procedure. Patients were encouraged to resume full weight bearing by 6 weeks and all were walking unaided by 12 weeks. Clinical and radiographic union was achieved at an average of 15.5 (12-20) weeks. One case was over-corrected 5°; a second procedure was required to revise the deformity correction to clinically neutral. There were no other complications in this series. Conclusions: This combination of surgical techniques has, in this small series, been a consistently safe and effective treatment for this condition.
  6,089 25 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Recent advances in bone regeneration: The role of adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction and mesenchymal stem cells
Yasir Alabdulkarim, Bayan Ghalimah, Mohammad Al-Otaibi, Hadil F Al-Jallad, Mina Mekhael, Bettina Willie, Reggie Hamdy
January-June 2017, 3(1):4-18
DOI:10.4103/jllr.jllr_1_17  
The management of large bone defects, atrophic nonunions, and other conditions with poor bone formation presents a formidable challenge to the treating physician, as all available techniques of bone reconstruction have drawbacks. Recent advances in stem cell biology, specifically adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) and adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction (SVF), have opened up new horizons by providing a reliable and abundant source of stem cells with osteogenic potential that can be used in various bone tissue engineering techniques. In this review, several aspects related to the use of ASCs are addressed, such as harvesting and processing of adipose tissue, advantages of ASCs over bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, mechanism of action and safety of ASCs, and factors affecting the differentiation of ASCs. Published reports on the use of ASCs in critical size defects, nonunions, and distraction osteogenesis are also reviewed. Innovative trends in stem cell research on musculoskeletal pathologies are highlighted, with special emphasis on the increasing evidence that the direct application of freshly prepared SVF processed from adipose tissue into the bone defect to be treated without a prior differentiation or an ex vivo expansion and culture is possible. This highly promising approach may lead to the development of a one-step intraoperative cell therapy.
  5,748 37 3
EDUCATIONAL ARTICLE
Use of Ilizarov methodology for complex foot and ankle problems: A personal experience
Nuno Lopes
October-December 2015, 1(1):42-53
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.168748  
Complex foot deformity correction with conventional techniques has many limitations including neurovascular problems, skin problems, stiffness, and limb shortening. Ilizarov methodology on the contrary is not limited by deformity magnitude and permits a comprehensive approach to foot deformity correction treating all deformities simultaneously, either in foot or leg, combining techniques of soft tissue distraction, bone lengthening, and arthrodesis. Nevertheless, Ilizarov methodology is not exempted from problems and difficulties. It is a technically demanding procedure with a long learning curve. For the patient, treatment time is long, the frame is uncomfortable, pin infection is frequent, and other complication rates are also high. However, if proper technique is used including preoperative planning, preconstruction of the frame, careful ambulatory handling, and this method can be useful in the management of difficult cases and in certain circumstances, the sole method to correct complex foot deformities.
  4,802 23 -
EXPERT OPINION
The cosmetic dream and future of lengthening procedures
Jean-Marc Guichet
July-December 2017, 3(2):75-77
DOI:10.4103/jllr.jllr_23_17  
  4,706 18 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Use of the Fassier-Duval telescopic rod for the management of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia
Mohammad Mesfer Alzahrani, François Fassier, Reggie C Hamdy
January-June 2016, 2(1):23-28
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.182572  
Introduction: Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) is a rare condition that can pose a challenge in achieving union after surgical excision of the pseudarthrosis site. Multiple methods have been described for management of fractures complicating this abnormal bone, including intramedullary nails (IMNs) and external fixators. One of the IMN designs is the telescoping nail, which has many models including the Fassier-Duval (FD) rod. This system has been known for its use in the management of osteogenesis imperfecta and different types of dysplasia. In this series, we describe our experience with the use of this system in the management of CPT of the tibia in children. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of four patients with FD rod insertions for CPT management. The mean age at surgery was 7.6 years (range: 1.5-17) and the minimum follow-up was 20 months (average: 52.3 months, range: 20-93 months). Two out of the four patients had a concomitant diagnosis of neurofibromatosis Type 1. Results: All four cases achieved union of the fracture at final follow-up. Complications encountered in these cases included a case of joint intrusion into the knee and a case of rod migration due to the failure of telescoping. Conclusion: The FD rod showed promising results in our cohort, but before this treatment modality can be recommended for the management of CPT, additional studies are required. Level of Evidence: IV
  3,829 16 1
EDITORIALS
Cosmetic limb lengthening surgery: The elephant in the Room. Harm minimization not prohibition
Minoo Patel
July-December 2017, 3(2):73-74
DOI:10.4103/jllr.jllr_22_17  
  3,721 21 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Fixator-assisted nailing for revision ankle fusion with deformity, bone loss and or infection
Minoo K Patel, Rejith V Mannambeth
October-December 2015, 1(1):14-20
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.168744  
Context: Ankle nonunions with deformity and bone loss are challenging cases, often with broken hardware and infection. These cases are often associated with multiple previous surgeries making revision surgery difficult. Ankle fusion for failed total ankle arthroplasty or neuropathic joints are particularly challenging, which is reflected in high reported failure rates. Aims: Fixator-assisted nailing combines Taylor spatial frame (TSF) with an intramedullary nail, allowing for correction of deformity and compression at the nonunion site, as well as internal fixation protecting the fusion after frame removal. Subjects and Methods: Between 2001 and 2014, 24 patients with 26 failed ankle fusions, with bone loss and deformity, were treated using this technique. After removal of the original internal fixation hardware and revision of the fusion surfaces, a Taylor frame is used for acute or gradual correction of deformity and compression at the nonunion site. This was followed by insertion of intramedullary nail. The nail was locked at the time of fixator removal. Results: Acute correction was possible in 23 of the 26 cases with gradual correction in the others. Union was obtained in 25 cases (96.2%) and maintained at 24 months in 23 cases (88.4%). The overall salvage rate (avoidance of amputation) was 96.2% (25/26 cases). All salvaged limbs remain free of clinical infection and do not require ongoing antibiotic treatment. The foot was in neutral position in all salvaged cases. The average time in external fixation was 11 weeks (6-13 weeks). The average AOFAS ankle/hindfoot score was 74 (range: 61-80). Conclusions: Fixator-assisted nailing, combining a TSF and an intramedullary nail, is a reliable technique for revision ankle fusion for complex nonunion with deformity and/or infection.
  3,506 26 -
Gradual correction of knee flexion contracture using external fixation
Ettore Vulcano, Jonathan S Markowitz, Austin T Fragomen, S Robert Rozbruch
July-December 2016, 2(2):102-107
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.190712  
Introduction: Knee flexion contracture (KFC) is a debilitating condition that may affect patients with neurogenic conditions, congenital deformities, posttraumatic deformities, and after total knee replacement. The recurrence rate of the deformity following either operative or nonoperative treatment remains high. The aim of the present study is to assess clinical outcomes of patients with KFCs and associated ankle equinus using gradual correction with a circular external fixator (CEF). Methods: Twenty-one patients with knee flexion contraction were treated using a CEF. Seven patients were also simultaneously treated for ankle equinus. All but two patients underwent a combination of open or arthroscopic knee arthrolysis, distal hamstrings lengthening, and gastrocsoleus release. The CEF was applied to match the residual deformity, following the minimal incision soft-tissue release. Results: Mean follow-up was 13 months. The mean range of motion (ROM) at final follow-up was −10° extension, 64° flexion, 9° ankle dorsiflexion, and 29° ankle plantar flexion. The difference between preoperative and postoperative ROMs was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Discussion: The present study suggests that gradual distraction using a CEF is a safe and effective technique in the management of KFC and concurrent ankle equinus. It is crucial to maintain the postoperative correction with braces for at least 1-3 months, depending on the severity of the condition.
  3,478 18 1
INVITED ARTICLE
Controversy of high tibial osteotomy
Tsukasa Teramoto
October-December 2015, 1(1):38-41
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.168747  
The medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) of knee joint has various surgical options such as high tibial osteotomy (HTO), hemiarthroplasty, and total knee arthroplasty. In the early stages of medial OA, there are no intra-articular deformities. Thus HTO, which is an extra-articular osteotomy, is recommended for the treatment of mild OA, but in moderate and severe medial OA, there are intra-articular deformities. HTO cannot correct these intra-articular deformities. Thus, an intra-articular osteotomy like the Tibial condylar valgus osteotomy (TCVO) is required in cases of moderate to severe medial OA knee. The contact area of the articular surface of the knee joint after TCVO is broader than it is after HTO in cases of moderate/severe OA. TCVO also improves the bony stability, eliminates the lateral thrust and surely corrects the alignment of the lower limb. To conclude, in cases of medial OA knee, the type of deformity must be evaluated and corrected accordingly. Intra-articular deformity must be corrected first. If the correction of varus and the mechanical axis is not enough, then extra-articular deformity must also be corrected, with a simultaneous or subsequent HTO.
  3,271 23 1
ABSTRACTS
Abstracts

July-December 2017, 3(3):1-159
  3,167 35 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
A systematic review of incidence of pin track infections associated with external fixation
Christopher A Iobst, Raymond W Liu
January-June 2016, 2(1):6-16
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.182570  
Depending on the reference, pin track infection rates in external fixation surgery have been stated to be anywhere from 0% to 100%. We critically evaluated the pin track infection rate for external fixation by performing systematic review of the external fixation literature since 1980. Using PubMed, a search of the peer-reviewed literature on external fixation was performed. This systematic review was conducted, as much as possible, in accordance with PICOS and PRISMA guidelines. A total of 150 articles were reviewed, including at least one from each year between 1980 and 2014. The following data were collected from each article: the year of publication, number of patients in the study, average age of the patients, reason for the external fixation, fixation per segment (two or more than two points), body part involved, whether or not hydroxyapatite-coated pins were used, duration of the external fixator, type of fixator used, and number of patients with documented pin track infections. These 150 studies represented 6130 patients. There were 1684 reported pin track infections from these 6130 patients, giving a cumulative pin track infection rate of 27.4%. A more recent year of publication was associated with an increasing infection rate (P = 0.015) while increasing age was associated with a decreased infection rate (P < 0.0005). There were trends toward association of humerus location (P = 0.059), shorter fixator duration (P = 0.056), and circular fixation (P = 0.079) with decreased infection rates. This systematic review of external fixation publications revealed a cumulative pin track infection rate of 27%. Younger age was the factor leading to increased pin track infection rates. Circular fixation trended toward being protective of pin track infection when usage was factored into the multiple regression analysis. Longer duration of fixation trended toward increased infection rate as expected. This data provides important base values for a common complication in external fixation treatment, highlights the importance of a more consistent definition of a pin track infection in future research, and identifies the pediatric population as the group at greatest risk.
  3,150 21 6
Pin-track infections: Past, present, and future
Christopher A Iobst
July-December 2017, 3(2):78-84
DOI:10.4103/jllr.jllr_17_17  
Pin-track infections are a common problem with external fixation and any other implant that breaks the skin barrier. The literature is rich with reports and techniques for treating these infections, but lacks a universally accepted definition of a pin track infection, a single commonly accepted classification, or a standard method of reporting. However, the surgeon can follow a commonly accepted series of practical steps to reduce the occurrence of infection. Continuing development of improved surfaces, substances, and techniques may make pin track infections rarer in the future. Careful preoperative planning, meticulous surgical technique, patient education, and close patient monitoring are all critical to minimize pin-track infections.
  3,032 35 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Surgical decompression of the peroneal nerve in the correction of lower limb deformities: A cadaveric study
Monica Paschoal Nogueira, Arnaldo José Hernandez, César Augusto Martins Pereira, Dror Paley, Anil Bhave
July-December 2016, 2(2):76-81
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.190708  
Background: The peroneal nerve is often stretched during limb lengthening and deformity correction. If the nerve becomes entrapped under the peroneal muscle fascia and/or anterior intermuscular septum, decompression is indicated to treat nerve compromise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify peroneal nerve tension after varus osteotomy of the proximal tibia and before and after nerve decompression. Methods: A device, which consisted of a force transducer connected perpendicularly by a hook to the nerve and integrated to a personal computer, was able to indirectly measure the nerve rigidity in 14 lower limbs (seven cadaveric specimens). The nerve was neither cut nor disrupted from its anatomic tract by the rigidity measuring device. We measured the amount of peroneal nerve rigidity before varus angulation, after varus angulation of a proximal tibial osteotomy, and after peroneal nerve decompression in the varus angulation position. Results: Peroneal nerve rigidity increased significantly after limb was angulated into varus (P = 0.0002) and was reduced significantly after decompression (P = 0.0003). No significant difference was noted between measurements obtained before varus angulation and measurements obtained after nerve decompression (P = 0.3664). Conclusions: Varus osteotomy of the proximal tibia significantly increases peroneal nerve rigidity. Peroneal nerve rigidity after decompression is not significantly different from nerve rigidity before varus correction. Clinical Relevance: This study provides biomechanical evidence of the efficacy of nerve decompression in two specific anatomic sites (peroneus longus muscle fascia and lateral, intermuscular septum) in relieving the increase in peroneal nerve rigidity that occurs in association with procedures that stretch the nerve such as limb lengthening and deformity correction.
  2,962 17 -
EDITORIALS
Evolution in long bone deformity correction in the post-Ilizarov era: External to internal devices
Reggie C Hamdy
July-December 2016, 2(2):61-67
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.190703  
  2,948 28 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Infected lower tibial nonunions without bone grafting - Reliable union using the Ilizarov technique
Milind M Chaudhary, Saurabh Jain, Vigneshwaran Pragadeeswaran, Pratik H Lakhani
October-December 2015, 1(1):21-28
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.168745  
Aims: To retrospectively study infected distal tibial nonunions which have deformity, bone gaps and a small size of distal fragment for union and eradication of infection using staged Ilizarov treatment. Patients and Methods: Thirty seven distal infected tibial nonunions were treated over 11 years. Twelve presented without active discharge and were treated with Ilizarov fixator. Twenty five presented with draining infection and were treated with debridement, Antibiotic Cement Coated (ACC) rods and beads. Five healed without further intervention. Twenty were treated by Ilizarov fixator secondarily. Monofocal compression was used in 16 patients. Ten had a bone transport to fill gaps of 2 to 17.3 cm. Six had bifocal simultaneous treatment. Twenty three had a foot frame applied for stability. None had Iliac Crest bone grafting to achieve union at Nonunion site. Bone Marrow aspirate was injected in 5 patients to hasten union. Results: Five patients united without application of fixator. Twenty nine of 32 nonunions healed with first application of Ilizarov fixator. Three needed repeat fixation to achieve 100% union. Infection was eradicated in all patients. Thirteen (40%) were excellent, 14 good (43%), two were fair and three poor by ASAMI criteria. Mean ex-fix duration was 393.4 days (132-720). Mean 7.6 cm length was achieved in the regenerate. Conclusions: Infected Distal tibial nonunions have a small distal fragment, deformity, bone gap causing difficulties in treatment. Debridement, ACC beads and rods and Ilizarov fixator reliably achieves union and eradicates infection. Residual deformity and prolonged fixator duration were the main problems in our series.
  2,863 22 -
Treatment of open fractures of the tibia with a locked intramedullary nail with a core release of antibiotics (SAFE DualCore Universal): Comparative study with a standard locked intramedullary nail
Nuno Craveiro-Lopes
January-June 2016, 2(1):17-22
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.182571  
Introduction: The SAFE Dualcore Universal Nail is an interlocking nail with an antibiotic cement core. We compared the clinical and radiological results with a standard interlocking nail for treating open fractures of the tibia. Materials and Methods: Prospective, controlled cohort trial, including thirty patients with open fractures of the tibia. Patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment method: Group I (STD), consisting of 14 patients treated by delayed interlocking standard nailing, after an antibiotic treatment and bed rest. Group II (SAFE) had 16 patients treated with an interlocking intramedullary nail with a core of polymethyl methacrylate cement with antibiotics. Five of these were temporarily stabilized with an external fixator. We added vancomycin (2 g) and flucloxacillin (2 g) to the bone cement in the core of the nail. The two groups were similar on demographic data (age, gender), fracture, and extent of the wounds (P > 0.05). The mean follow-up was 2.4 years (5 months to 4 years) for the STD group and 2.1 years (4 months to 3 years) for the SAFE group. Results: Fifteen of the 30 patients had positive cultures, including 13 cases growing Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) groups. The infection rate was significantly more in STD at 43% (6/14 patients) compared to SAFE 6% (1/16 patients), (P = 0.02). Healing times was significantly more for STD group, at an average of 7.5 months (3-18 months) compared to 4.5 months (2-8.5 months) for the SAFE group (P = 0.02). The complication rate was 64% (9/14) in the STD group and 25% (4/16) for the SAFE, including the infection rate, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.03). The six infected STD nailing cases were salvaged with antibiotic coated cement nails, five of which healed. Infection recurred in the sixth case and was treated with the Ilizarov method. Conclusion: SAFE nails had lesser infection, faster consolidation, and fewer complications compared with standard nails in treating open fractures of tibia. We can choose the type and dose of antibiotics eluted by the nail. The SAFE DualCore Universal nail is mechanical stable as well as biologically active. It allows fixation of intermediate bone segments, shortens hospital stay, healing time, and reduces the cost of treatment. Level of Evidence: Level III.
  2,482 17 1
Accordion maneuver: A bloodless tool in ilizarov
Ranjit Kumar Baruah, Sourav Patowary
January-June 2018, 4(1):11-19
DOI:10.4103/jllr.jllr_25_17  
Purpose: Accordion maneuver (AM) is a “Bloodless Tool” to stimulate bone healing as described by Professor Ilizarov by a mechanism called transformation osteogenesis. It has been underdescribed in literature. Furthermore, there is lack of standard protocol for AM. We report our cases where this Bloodless Tool was used and discuss the strategies for its use in various conditions. Materials and Methods: We reviewed our cases that underwent AM during 1994−2015, through this retrospective study. In nonunion, initial compression or distraction was decided by the status of nonunion. In hypertrophic (stiff) nonunion, the first maneuver was distraction followed by compression in one cycle and the sequence was reversed in atrophic (mobile) nonunion. In hyporegenerate, distraction was discontinued, stability restored, and AM was performed with compression first. Results: Twenty-three patients were included. In 15 cases monofocal, 7 cases bifocal, and in 1 case trifocal osteosynthesis was done with Ilizarov. AM was done for hypertrophic nonunion in 6 cases, atrophic nonunion in 15 cases, and hyporegenerate in 5 cases. In 3 cases, AM was done for both hyporegenerate and docking site nonunion. In all the cases of nonunion, union was achieved and in all the cases of hyporegenerate, bone formation improved. Conclusions: Transformation osteogenesis with AM is a bloodless tool in Ilizarov. To achieve desired results, protocol for the maneuver should be based on type of pathology between the fragments.
  2,479 14 -
CASE REPORT
Talar body fracture nonunion and osteonecrosis with adjacent arthritis can be successfully treated with tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis using circular external fixation
Eugene Wilson Borst, Scott J Ellis, Austin Thomas Fragomen
October-December 2015, 1(1):54-59
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.168749  
Fractures of the talar body often result from high-energy trauma. These fractures are at risk for nonunion and put the talus at risk for avascular necrosis due to an inadequate blood supply. We present the case of a 57-year-old male that presented to our practice with talus fracture nonunion, talar body osteonecrosis, ankle and subtalar posttraumatic osteoarthritis, and deformity including a mild equinus contracture and mild hindfoot varus. Successful ankle and subtalar fusion, talus fracture union, and deformity correction were performed using a circular external fixator with fine wire fixation and compression. This is the first reported case where fusion of both the tibio-talar-calcaneal joints and the talar body nonunion was achieved using external fixation. At the time of this report, the patient is over 3 years postfusion, stands with neutral alignment, is relatively pain-free, is able to resume normal daily activities, and has no progression of talar osteonecrosis.
  2,357 23 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A comparison of deformity correction capabilities in hexapod frame systems
Christopher A Iobst, Mikhail Samchukov, Alex Cherkashin
January-June 2016, 2(1):29-34
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.182573  
Context: Hexapod fixators can be divided into two basic design groups. One group consists of frames that use ball and socket joint struts attached to the outer surface of the rings. The other group consists of frames that use cardan type universal joint struts attached to the under surface of the rings. Aims: To compare the ability of different hexapod fixator systems for deformity correction. Settings and Design: Nearly, identical two-ring frame constructs were compared to determine if there was any difference in deformity correction capability between cardan type universal joint struts and ball and socket joint struts. Materials and Methods: Maximal deformity was created using the software for each of the frame constructs in all six planes of deformity (angulation, translation, and rotation in the coronal and sagittal planes). Clinical scenarios were also compared (equinus contracture, moderate Blount disease, and severe Blount disease) and the number of strut changes necessary to correct the deformity were recorded. Results: For the small and medium-sized struts, the angular deformity corrections were similar, but the cardan type universal hinges had a greater capability for correcting translational deformity and rotation than the ball and socket joints. However, the amount of lengthening possible was greater for the ball and socket joints with these strut sizes. In the largest size of struts, the ball and socket joints had greater range in every category except rotation. In patients requiring significant rotational correction, the cardan type universal joints were found to impinge on the soft tissues 13° earlier than the ball and socket joints (39° vs. 52°). A Blount disease case with moderate multiplanar deformity and an equinus correction of 45° required the same amount of strut changes for each design. For the Blount disease case with severe multiplanar deformity, the cardan type universal joint struts required six total changes, whereas the ball and socket joint struts required only one strut change and two strut adjustments to achieve the same correction. Conclusions: Both the cardan type universal joint and the ball and socket joint hexapod frame designs allow substantial multiplanar corrections to occur. In the smaller size struts, the cardan type universal joints allow more translation and rotation, whereas the ball and socket joints allow more length. For large rotational corrections and frames built with 90° of offset, the ball and socket joint design is better at avoiding soft tissue impingement. While both systems are comparable with mild to moderate deformity correction, the ball and socket joint design allows more correction with less strut changes for patients with severe deformity in our experimental construct.
  2,285 22 3
Guidelines for safe bilateral tibial lengthening for stature
Konstantin Igorevich Novikov, Koushik Narayan Subramanyam, Elina S Kolesnikova, Olga S Novikova, Jiten Jaipuria
July-December 2017, 3(2):93-100
DOI:10.4103/jllr.jllr_7_17  
Context: Limb lengthening has its own share of problems, obstacles, and complications, which is of great concern when used for a cosmetic indication. Aims: This study explores safe limits for cosmetic tibial lengthening and examines how age of the patient and length gained influences osteogenesis and complications. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective analytical study. Subjects and Methods: We reviewed 70 consecutive cases (140 segments) of monofocal tibial cosmetic lengthening with minimum of 1-year follow-up operated between 2006 and 2010. Statistical Analysis Used: We correlated patient's age and percentage by which bone was lengthened with external fixator index (EFI) and occurrence of obstacles and complications and did receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine the safe limit. Results: Mean age of patients was 27 (16–52) years. Mean tibial lengthening was by 16.5% (4.1–27.9) of the preoperative length. Sixty segments faced 76 difficulties comprising 16 problems, 47 obstacles, and 13 complications. Patient's age positively correlated with EFI, but did not correlate with the incidence of obstacles and complications. Percentage by which bone was lengthened negatively correlated with EFI and positively correlated with incidence of obstacles and complications. ROC curve analyses (with optimum balance of sensitivity and specificity) revealed lengthening by more than 18.1% and 16.4% to be significantly associated with the occurrence of complication and more than one obstacle, respectively. Conclusions: In cosmetic tibial lengthening, increasing age increases the duration of external fixation and increased lengthening increases obstacles and complications. Great caution must be exercised in cosmetic tibial lengthening beyond 16%.
  2,238 16 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Quality of life of children with lower limb deformities: A systematic review of patient-reported outcomes and development of a preliminary conceptual framework
Harpreet Chhina, Anne Klassen, Jacek Kopec, Sujin Park, Cadi Fortes, Anthony Cooper
January-June 2017, 3(1):19-29
DOI:10.4103/jllr.jllr_33_16  
Background: Lower limb deformities have a substantial impact on the quality of life (QOL) of children. This systematic review was conducted to identify as follows: (a) QOL concepts in existing literature specific to pediatric patients with lower limb deformities; (b) parent-reported outcome and patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments used to measure QOL in pediatric patients with lower limb deformities; and (c) determinants of QOL in pediatric patients with lower limb deformities. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from the inception to January 2016. Studies were included if they (1) had patients with lower limb deformities; (2) included children 18 years of age or under; and (3) measured QOL using a PRO or parent-reported outcome of instruments. Results: Of the 938 publications identified in the search, 10 studies used a total of 24 PRO or parent-reported outcome instruments to measure 1 or more aspects of QOL of pediatric patients with lower limb deformities. Three overarching health concepts (physical, psychological, and social health) and 15 subconcepts were identified. Five studies looked at determinants of QOL including type of deformity, severity of deformity, complications postsurgery, stage of treatment, and type of treatment. Psychological health was measured in 10 studies, social health in 7 studies, and physical health in 6 studies. The most frequently measured subconcepts were physical function, psychological distress, and social function. Conclusion: Existing parent-reported outcome and PRO instruments measure 3 QOL concepts in children with lower limb deformities. There were no validated PRO instruments specifically designed to measure QOL of children with lower limb deformities. Level of Evidence: This was a systematic review of level III studies.
  2,198 17 1
EDITORIALS
The luckiest surgeons in the world
Kevin Tetsworth
October-December 2015, 1(1):4-5
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.168742  
  2,071 22 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Closed reduction of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures using ilizarov frame
Hani El-Mowafi, Mazen Samir Abulsaad, Wail Lotfy Abd-el-naby, Yasser Roshdy Kandil
January-June 2017, 3(1):57-64
DOI:10.4103/jllr.jllr_32_16  
Background: Treatment of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures (DIACFs) is still controversial. Aim: The objective of our study was to assess the capability of using Ilizarov frame as a minimally invasive technique to improve foot function and restore calcaneal length, height, width, and Bohler's angle in patients with DIACFs. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed forty patients (mean age, 25.4 ± 9.6 years, a mean follow-up of 44.9 ± 6.9 months) with 48 closed DIACFs who underwent indirect reduction and external fixation using Ilizarov technique. We applied distraction technique through the mechanical axis of the leg and through the foot axis. The drop wire technique was used to restore depressed subtalar fragments. Bone graft was not used. Results: We achieved good alignment in all cases except four feet who had varus deformity. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 84.6 ± 5. Superficial pin tract infection occurred in 7 feet. Skin pressure necrosis was seen in 3 feet. Statistically, all radiological measures were improved and significantly different from those measured preoperatively. Conclusion: Closed reduction of DIACFs using Ilizarov frame provides a good functional foot outcome with a low risk of postoperative complications. It also has the capability of restoring normal anatomy of the calcaneus.
  2,035 16 -
Distraction osteogenesis for brachymetatarsia: Clinical results and implications on the metatarsophalangeal joint
Amgad M Haleem, Angela Balagadde, Eugene Wilson Borst, Huong T Do, Austin Thomas Fragomen, S Robert Rozbruch
October-December 2015, 1(1):29-37
DOI:10.4103/2455-3719.168746  
Background: Distraction osteogenesis (DO) using external fixation has revolutionized the management of brachymetatarsia, yet not without complications (30-100% incidence), the most common involving the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. Questions/Purposes: What are the clinical outcomes of DO for brachymetatarsia? What are the challenges and outcomes particularly related to the MTP joint? Does the method of stabilizing MTP joint during DO affect the outcome? Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 44 metatarsals (MTs) in 27 patients who underwent DO. Regarding MTP joint stabilization; 43% were fixed with K-wire across the joint, 32% with pinning of phalanges short of joint and attaching the K-wire to the external fixator, 7% by pinning of phalanges and distraction arthroplasty of the MTP joint, 2% no stabilization, and 16% by other methods. Clinical outcomes were analyzed by a nonvalidated 9-item questionnaire at the latest follow-up in addition to a review of postoperative radiographs. Complications, particularly pertaining to MTP joint were recorded. Statistical Analysis: The paired t-test was used to assess the difference in MT length. Fisher's exact test used to evaluate rates of complications by MTP fixation method. McNemar's test was used to measure the difference in outcome questionnaire responses. Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to assess differences in toe-limitation before and after surgery. Results: Postoperatively, MT length showed a significant increase of 12.98 ± 3.74 mm (28.55 ± 9.25%). Problems included MTP stiffness in 64%, MTP subluxation in 27%, and MTP dislocation in 7%, with no significant differences in outcome by MTP joint stabilization. Satisfaction with surgery was reported by 95% of patients. Conclusion: DO is an effective treatment for brachymetatarsia, with high patient satisfaction. The most commonly reported problem was MTP joint stiffness with no functional deficit. There was no significant difference in the rate of MTP joint-specific complications by stabilization method. Larger patient numbers are required for validation of an optimal MTP joint stabilization method. Level of Evidence: IV, Case Series.
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